We have a configuration of Project Server 2010 that uses Analysis Services over HTTPS/ssl.  With one particular environment the cube build process would always fail with the message noted in this post.  Based on the typical findings on the web, I’d run through and confirm the typical settings, including permissions among other things.  Strange enough, eventually I would get the cube to build during my research, only for it to fail again during it’s nightly cycle.  I therefore decided to check the ULS logs (yes, should have checked this earlier).  In the logs there was a certificate error showing up just after the cube build was triggered stating the following:

An operation failed because the following certificate has validation errors:nnSubject Name: CN=*.domain.com, OU=Domain Control Validated, O=*.domain.comnIssuer Name: SERIALNUMBER=07969287, CN=Go Daddy Secure Certification Authority, OU=http://certificates.godaddy.com/repository, O="GoDaddy.com, Inc.", L=Scottsdale, S=Arizona, C=USnThumbprint: E8B3DBF6B9ECEA9B5B751B5C39F1690C6822255BnnErrors:nn The root of the certificate chain is not a trusted root authority..

This definitely changed my research and analysis perspective.  I decided to reinstall the certificate, however, the issue persisted.  I opened IIS in order to check the settings for SLL, and noticed I did not have the Require SSL checkbox selected (see below for how it should be set).  Once I checked this box and saved my settings the cube starting building successfully every time.  Lesson Learned –Dan.

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UPDATE:  To be as thorough as possible with this resolution, the other thing I did at the same time I ticked the checkbox was reboot the application server.  Technically, therefore, I cannot say whether the Require SSL or reboot resolved the issue.